Treatment of Tardive Syndromes
To make evidence-based recommendations regarding management of tardive syndromes (TDS), including tardive dyskinesias (TDD), by addressing 5 questions:
1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TDS treatment?
2) Does switching from typical to atypical Antipsychotics reduce TDS symptoms?
3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TDS?
4) Do patients with TDS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin?
5) Do patients with TDS benefit from surgical therapy?
Results and recommendations:
1) Clonazepam probably improves TDD and Ginkgo Biloba probably improves TDS (both Level B); both should be considered as treatment.
2) Risperidone may improve TDS but cannot be recommended as treatment because neuroleptics may cause TDS despite masking symptoms.
3) Amantadine and Tetrabenazine might be considered as TDS treatment (Level C).
4) Diltiazem should not be considered as TDD treatment (Level B);
5) Galantamine and Eicosapentaenoic acid may not be considered as treatment (Level C).
6) Data are insufficient to support or refute use of acetazolamide, bromocriptine, thiamine, baclofen, vitamin E, vitamin B6, selegiline, clozapine, olanzapine, melatonin, nifedipine, fluperlapine, sulpiride, flupenthixol, thiopropazate, haloperidol, levetiracetam, quetiapine, ziprasidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, buspirone, yi-gan san, biperiden discontinuation, botulinum toxin type A, electroconvulsive therapy, a-methyldopa, reserpine, and pallidal deep brain stimulation as TDS treatments (Level U).
7) Data are insufficient to support or refute TDS treatment by withdrawing causative agents or switching from typical to atypical DRBA (Level U).
Please do post your questions or comments below.
Dr. Harvinder Singh, M.D. (Admin)
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