Do SSRIs have Active Metabolite?


  1. Fuller RW, Snoddy HD, Krushinski JH, Robertson DW. Comparison of norfluoxetine enantiomers as serotonin uptake inhibitors in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1992 Oct;31(10):997-1000. (PubMed PMID: 1279447)
  2. Sprouse J, Clarke T, Reynolds L, Heym J, Rollema H. Comparison of the effects of sertraline and its metabolite desmethylsertraline on blockade of central 5-HT reuptake in vivo. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996 Apr;14(4):225-31. (PubMed PMID: 8924190)
  3. von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ, Grassi JM, Granda BW, Venkatakrishnan K, Duan SX, Fogelman SM, Harmatz JS, Shader RI. Citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in vitro: human cytochromes mediating transformation, and cytochrome inhibitory effects. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Sep 15;46(6):839-49. (PubMed PMID: 10494454)
  4. Rao N. The clinical pharmacokinetics of escitalopram. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2007;46(4):281-90. Review. (PubMed PMID: 17375980)
  5. D.A. Ciraulo and R.I. Shader (eds.), Pharmacotherapy of Depression.


Read the following chapter discussing the therapeutic drug monitoring of antidepressants:

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antidepressants.

This chapter is summarized in the following eight sections:

  1. SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors).
  2. SNRIs (Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors).
  3. NDRI (Norepinephrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors).
  4. NaSSAs (Noradrenergics & Specific Serotonergics).
  5. Serotonin Modulators.
  6. NRI (Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors).
  7. TCA (TriCyclic Antidepressants).

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